CBD, or Cannabidiol, is a property of cannabis linked to pain relief similar to THC. High content of CBD in marijuana strains is a relatively new discovery, with desirable results for medical patients since it does not cause associated mental impairment, or side effects in addition to its ability to neutralize pain.
When studying the widely accepted concept of breeding Cannabis to maximize THC, approximately one in 500 samples tested is found to contain levels of 4% CBD or more - Science and laboratories is working toward a concrete answer of this phenomena. The more common approach among growers, and testers, have noted that the CBD has derived from mutations occuring through selective crossing and parent selection process. As the Cannabis plant matures, precursor to both CBD/THC is a molecule called cannabigerolic acid (CBGA).
CBGA is turned into CBD acid and THC acid by enzymes called CBDA synthase and THCA synthase. A mutation resulting in excess CBDA synthase or deficient THCA synthase would result in CBD-rich offspring. We hope to track the similarities and differences reported between strains with similar cannabinoid ratios. Harlequin, Jamaican Lion and Omrita Rx3, for example, have been tested several times by several labs and are in the neighborhood of 8-9% CBD and 5.5-6% THC —about a 3:2 ratio. And yet anecdotal evidence suggests differing effects. We have only taken the first step on a long march towards understanding.
Medical studies have shown strong effects of CBD ranging from; seizure / convulsion suppressant, inflammation relief, hypertension and anxiety relief, as well as counteracting cancer cell growth in select cases. Recent reports have also shown success in treating schizophrenia or other antipsychotic distress, with range of symptoms such as dystonia.
In the past years, CBD has shown to inhibit breast cancer cells in vitro, and reduce their invasiveness.